Cities of Ukraine
Ukarine is a big country, the are list of biggest cities in Ukraine
Situated on the Dnipro River, Kiev (also Kyiv) is the capital city of Ukraine. After a rough and turbulent history, the town has become an interesting array of old and new buildings. More and more of the culture is being influenced by the characteristics of both Western and European customs, yet the Ukrainians who live here still cling proudly to tradition.
The modern city of Kiev is home to roughly three million people. Some of these people are foreign diplomats while others are students from other parts of the world. Thus, Kiev has a somewhat cosmopolitan feel. While many of its greater architectural and art treasures were destroyed in the Second World War, that which was left has been restored and now proudly adorns the face of this picturesque city. For a while there were understandable concerns about the safety of living in such close proximity to the destroyed nuclear reactor plant, but most scientists agree that the city is safe from the effects of radiation.
There is really so much to see and do in Kiev, you will be kept busy for days. Known as the ‘Green City’ for its many botanical gardens, parks and beautiful trees, the city is a wonder to behold in summer and spring. The nearby river provides hours of leisure activity in the form of swimming and boat rides, while many enjoy leisurely strolls and cycling trails along its banks. In the winter the lake freezes over to make way to ice fishermen and ice-skaters. The many theatres and opera houses provide indoor entertainment, and craft markets selling an abundance of traditional Ukrainian goods can be found in various city squares. There are art galleries, beautiful old buildings and even catacombs to see.Kiev is a charming and majestic city that should not be missed.
In 1869, an iron-works was founded there by a Welshman, John Hughes (from whom the town’s pre-revolutionary name Yuzovka was derived), to produce iron rails for the growing Russian rail network. The plant used coal from the immediate vicinity, and both coal mining and steel making developed rapidly.
By 1914, there were 4 metallurgical plants, 10 coal-pits, and a population of about 50 000.
After the October Revolution (1917), Yuzovka was renamed Stalino and, in 1961, Donetsk.
Heavy destruction during the World War II led to postwar modernization and an increase in the scale of industry. Subsequent growth of Donetsk was rapid and sustained.
Today, there are more than 40 coal-pits within the city limits. A major integrated coking, iron-smelting, and steel-making plant makes modern Donetsk one of the largest metallurgical centers in Ukraine.
Donetsk is a very green city, there are a lot of beautiful parks and boulevards. A botanic garden is open all year round. A special place is taken by a park of forged figures where annual European blacksmiths’ competition takes place. Reconstruction of the river Kalmius embankment was finished in 2009.
The pollution made by city plants which are concentrated on a small territory and the plants of Donetsk agglomeration form steady smog and it covers the city with dark violet smoke almost all year round.
Heavy air pollution is partly compensated by a lot of greenery and flowers. Over a half of the total city territory is occupied by greenery. The micro climate is favored by 30 ponds and water reservoirs with the total territory over 600 hectares, both within the city and in its outskirts.
Artem street from the railway station to the steelworks is the main Donetsk attraction. The street with main shops, hotels, administrative buildings is 5.5 miles (9 km) long.
There are 254 officially registered monuments of cultural heritage in the city. In 2009, it returned the status of the city where there is at least one rose per person.
There are about 140 museums and museum rooms in the city.
Local History Museum . The museum is housed in a modern building located near the “Donbass Arena” stadium. Extensive exhibition, presented in 24 halls, has about 120 thousand exhibits.
Among them are the remains of fossil of animals, imprints of fossil plants and trees, large archaeological collection of different tools, weapons, ornaments and amulets, numismatic collection, ethnographic collection. The most valuable exhibits are rare old books. Chelyuskintsev Street, 189-a. Opening hours: 10:00-18:00.
Museum of Art . The collection includes 11,500 works of painting, drawing, sculpture, decorative arts. In particular, the paintings of artists from Russia, Italy, Holland, France and Germany are presented.
The collection of crafts of ancient Greece and Rome (vases, dishes of various shapes and purposes, lamps, glass and bronze wares) are of particular interest. Pushkin Boulevard, 35. Opening hours: 8:30-17:00, days off - Monday, Tuesday.
Donetsk stadium, parks
Donbass Arena Stadium . It is Ukraine’s first stadium built for the European Football Championship 2012 in accordance with the standards of the UEFA Elite Category (five stars).
Due to the unusual design (the effect of floating roof), the stadium is shaped like a “flying saucer”. The complex houses three restaurants, several bars, fitness center and museum of FC “Shakhtar” with a multimedia exhibition and gift shop.
On the square in front of “Donbass Arena” the soccer ball fountain is set. 28-ton ball with a diameter of 2.7 m is spinning because of the pressure of the water. It is considered to be the largest spinning granite ball in the world.
Next to the stadium there is a park with fountains, ponds and rock garden. The total area of the park is about 2.5 hectares. Chelyuskintsev Street, 189-e. Opening hours: 10:00-17:00.
The park of forged sculptures . The best works of blacksmiths of Donbass region are collected there. The park holds annual international festival of blacksmithing skills. After the festival the best works are usually left in the park as a gift to the city. The garden of fairy tales with wooden sculptures of fairytale characters is located nearby. Artem Street, 98.
Palm Tree of Mertsalov . It is a replica of famous “Palm of Mertsalov” which has become a symbol of Donbass (depicted on the coat of arms of the region). Filigree sculpture in the form of a palm tree, forged from one steel rail at the end of the 19th century by local blacksmith A. Mertsalov, was awarded the Grand Prix at the Paris International Industrial Exhibition in 1900.
The original sculpture is located in the Museum of the Mining Institute in St. Petersburg. Numerous copies of this sculpture made by blacksmith S. Kaspruk can be found in Kiev, Lviv, Crimea, Moscow, Hanover and Ottawa.
In Donetsk, the first copy was set in 1999 near the exhibition center “Expo-Donbass”; the other was placed in the heart of the city - on the Pushkin Boulevard. Pushkin Boulevard, 34.
Tsar Cannon . The monument placed in the square in front of city council is a replica of the famous Moscow Tsar Cannon, the largest in caliber gun in the world. It was a gift from the people of Moscow to residents of Donetsk. The cannon was cast at “Izhstal” plant in Izhevsk (Russia) in 2001.
The cannon is mounted on decorative cast-iron gun-carriage, decorative cast-iron cannonballs lie next to it. The carriage weighs 20 tons, the cannon itself - 44 tons. The length of gun barrel is 5.28 m, which is 6 cm shorter than the original. Artem Street, 98.
Opera House . Donetsk academic opera and ballet theater named after A. Solovyanenko was designed by architect L. Kotovsky and built in 1941. The monumental building was constructed in socialist realism style. The theater has 970 seats. The repertory of the theater includes the plays: “Bohdan Khmelnytsky”, “Falstaff”. Artem Street, 82. Opening hours: ticket office: 10:00-19:00.
Drama Theater . Donetsk music and drama theater dates back to 1927 when Ukrainian theater of workers was created in Kharkov (the capital of Ukraine that time). The main purpose of the theater was to carry out cultural and educational mission in the east of the country.
In 1933, the theater moved to Donetsk. It is one of the most visited theaters in Ukraine. One of the best plays of recent years was the play “Aeneid”. Artem Street, 74-a.
Puppet Theater . It is one of the oldest theaters in Ukraine (1933). Ilyich Avenue, 18.
Other places of interest in Donetsk
Pushkin Boulevard . The boulevard is one of the most beautiful streets of Donetsk, favorite walking place of residents and visitors of the city. The boulevard was named after Great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin in 1947. Special amphitheater was built near the bust of Pushkin, in the central part of the boulevard. This place brings together poets, writers and other creative people.
The opposite end of the boulevard was chosen by the artists. You can buy not only the paintings with urban landscapes, but also all kinds of souvenirs there. The park of sculptures “Ukrainian steppe” has 11 works based on Slavic mythology created by Ukrainian and German artists.
Throughout the boulevard there are various sculptures and flowerbeds. At the intersection with Gurov Avenue several restaurants are located.
The House of Hughes . The family house of John Hughes, the founder of Donetsk (Yuzovka), was constructed in 1873 to the south-west of Yuzovsky Iron and Steel Works. Originally it was a one-storey house. The house was rebuilt when the family of John Hughes moved to Yuzovka from England. Two years after the start of reconstruction John Hughes died, but his sons continued the construction. It was completed in 1891.
In 1903, Hughes family returned to England. Directors and managers of metallurgical plant were living in the house. The building was damaged during the Second World War. It was used for various purposes until 1990. Today, the house of Hughes is located on the territory of private enterprise and the access to it is not easy. There are plans to restore the house. Klinicheskaya Street, 1.
There are dozens of hotels in Donetsk. The hotels mentioned below are the best ones according to the reviews of visitors.
Hotel “Park Inn by Radisson”. The hotel is located in the business center of Donetsk, on a quiet pedestrian Pushkin Boulevard, near Shcherbakov Park. Built in 1973, the building of the former hotel “Kyiv” is completely reconstructed for Euro-2012. There is a gym.
171 rooms with climate control, satellite TV, Wi-Fi. There is a restaurant “RBG Bar and Grill” offering a variety of menus, Ukrainian dishes, specialties. Pushkin Boulevard, 4.
Hotel “Liverpool”. This hotel can be found in the center of the city near the stadium “Donbass Arena”. Non-standard name influenced the design of the rooms, halls, and the exterior facade of the building constructed in 2007.
100 comfortable rooms with all the amenities, Wi-Fi. There is a restaurant “Live music bar”. Artema Street, 131-a. Phone: +380 62 312 54 74.
Hotel “Shakhtar Plaza”. The largest hotel complex in Donetsk, located in the city center, between the stadium “Donbass Arena” and the track and field stadium “Olympic”. On the ground floor, there is a SPA-center with swimming pool, Finnish and Turkish sauna. The hotel also has a fitness center.
322 modern and spacious rooms equipped with everything needed for a comfortable stay and work, Wi-Fi. The rooms are equipped with air conditioning. The restaurant offers a mix of European cuisine with local dishes.
Odessa is the largest city along the entire Black Sea, the 5th largest city in Ukraine and arguably the most important city of trade. Many years ago, Odessa was once the 3rd leading city in old Russia, after Moscow and St. Petersburg. Odessa looks more like a city located on the Mediterranean, having been heavily influenced by French and Italian styles. Odessa has always had a spirit of freedom, probably gifted to her by her location and by her ability to accept many different people. The city has a wide variety of people including Ukrainian, Russian, Moldavian, Greek, Romanian, Bulgarian, Caucasian, Jewish, Turkish and Vietnamese.
Odessa is one of the major ports and an important centre of industry, science and culture. Her mild climate, warm waters and sunlit beaches attract thousands of tourists year around. Its shady streets, gorgeous buildings and pleasant squares give the city a certain manner of closeness and understanding. Odessa is simply charming with its stunning architecture. The city proved itself fertile ground for various architectural styles. Some buildings display a marvelous mixture of different styles, and some are built in the Art Nouveau Style which was in vogue at the turn of the century. Renaissance and Classicist styles are also widely present.
Today Odessa has a total population of about 1.1 million people. The city's trades include that of shipbuilding, chemicals, oil refining, food processing and metalworking. Odessa also has a naval base and several fishing fleets, which adds to the cities economy.
Odessa is beautifully situated on green rolling hills, overlooking a small picturesque harbor. The best time to visit Odessa is during summer, when everything is in bloom and absolutely beautiful. The summer is especially favorable for those who are looking to tan on one of her tranquil white beaches.
Russian is the primary language spoken in Odessa, however, Ukrainian is the official language and many advertisements and signs are written in it. English is the most widely used tourist language.
The second largest city in the Ukraine, Karkiv (also known as Kharkov) is situated in the northeast of the country and serves as one of the main industrial, cultural and educational centers in the country. The country’s industry and research has been focused on arms production and machinery for many years. Today the city is home to such mega-companies as the Morozov Design Bureau, the Malyshev Tank Factory, Hartron and Turboatom. These companies specialize in fields such as tank and turbine production, and aerospace and nuclear electronic research.
Kharkiv was founded during the 17th century and has had a university since 1805. From 1917 to 1934 it served as capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Perhaps Karkiv’s most notable increase was during the Holodomor famine of the 1930s which saw many people arriving at the cities in search of food. It was a sad time and many lost their lives and were secretly buried by surviving relatives. It went on to suffer further tragedy when, during World War II, it was not only the site of several battles but was captured by Nazi Germany. The Nazis and the Red Army continually struggled for control over the city until August 1943 when it was liberated. During this period of struggle many tens of thousands lost their lives and the city suffered extensive damage.
Today Kharkiv has many attractions to be enjoyed by tourists. Kharkov’s Freedom Square is the largest city square in Europe and is second in the world only to the Tiananmen Square. It is a great place to start your sightseeing. After that you may wish to visit the Gosprom, the Mirror Stream, the Militia Museum, the Memorial Complex, the Shevchenko Monument and the Shevchenko Gardens. The Uspensky Cathedral and the Pokriv Cathedral are quite dramatic and look great in photographs. If you manage to fit that all into your trip, the Cable Road is another interesting place to stop. Make Kharkiv one of your stops while visiting the Ukraine and take the opportunity to learn more about the country’s turbulent history.
Founded in 1256, Lviv, or Lvov, has long been an important center of commerce in Ukraine. The city is responsible for the manufacture of electronic equipment, cars, agricultural machinery, chemicals, processed food and textiles. It has under a million inhabitants and a number of people commute from the surroundings suburbs daily. The winter is fairly cold and the summers are mild. The city sees a lot of cloud coverage.
Lviv is also one of the Ukraine’s leading cultural centers. The first high school in the city was founded by King Jan Kazimierz in 1661 and today the city is the proud home of the Lviv State University. It also boasts a number of theatres and museums. It also happens to be the seat of the Roman Catholic Ukrainian Orthodox and Armenian Orthodox archbishops. Two of its churches date back as early as the 14th century.
When touring Lviv, one might consider visiting the historical city center. The center is on the UNESCO World Heritage List and is fascinating to see. It includes the Ploscha Rynok Market Square with its Black House, the Armenian Cathedral, the Greek Cathedral, the Latin Cathedral, the Dominican Abey and the Boim Chapel. Or you can walk to the top of the Vysoky Zamok hill which overlooks the historical center. This is where the Union of Lublin mound is situated. For entertainment, the Philharmonic orchestra and the Lviv Opera and Ballet Theatre are a real cultural treat. On a more macabre note, the Lychakivskiy Cemetery is one of the biggest and more scenic in the region.
Lviv is an inviting and interesting place to visit. The cultural scene is constantly changing while history abounds and relics of the past remind us of what once transpired many hundreds of years ago.
IVANO-FRANKIVSK, is the capital city of the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast which lies to the west in Ukraine. It is a relatively small city with a population of roughly 205,000 people. The size of the city only adds to its charm.
Ivano-Frankivsk started life as a fortress which was built to protect the Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth from repeated Tatar invasions. The fortress was a great success and it wasn’t long before the city-fortress began to grow under the safety provided by this fortification. It was first mentioned in history in 1662 when it was granted the Magdeburg rights. The city went on to survive not only Tatar attacks but also those thrust upon it by invading Turkish and Russian forces. The Renaissance was a period of extensive growth and rebuilding, which lead to it becoming a somewhat more picturesque city. In fact it gained the nick-name 'little Leopolis' – Leopolis being the Latin name for Lviv. It was also at about this time that Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine, became an important center of Armenian culture.
After Poland was divided up in the 'Partitions of Poland', Ivano-Frankivsk came under Austrian rule before falling under the domain of the autonomous Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. 1919 was a turbulent time for Ivano-Frankivsk as it was the subject of many Polish-Ukrainian skirmishes. It eventually ended up as the Second Polish Republic, serving as the Stanislawow Voivodship capital. Eventually, in 1939 it was invaded by German and Soviet forces and was attached to the Ukrainian SSR. Much of the Jewish population was murdered during the Nazi occupation, which was a very sad period in the city’s history.
Eventually, in 1962, the name was changed to Ivano-Frankivsk after the Ukrainian writer Ivan Franko. The 1990s saw it become one of the centers of the Ukrainian independence movement. Today the city stands up proudly in its own right. It is a pretty city with both a victorious and sad history which is interesting to explore should you have the time. Why not visit Ivano-Frankivsk next time you are in Ukraine and find out what it has to offer for yourself?
Yalta is situated on a shallow bay facing south towards the Black Sea, on the site of an ancient Greek colony. It is said that Yalta was found by some Greek sailors many years ago who were looking for a safe shore to land on. Yalta is surrounded by many beautiful woody mountains. It enjoys a spectacular Mediterranean climate with many vineyards and orchards in its vicinity.
Yalta is a dramatically handsome resort on the southern tip of Crimea. It will always be a favored destination with its mild climate, lush green landscape and rugged beaches. Yalta attracts many tourists every year.
When going to Yalta you may hear the legend of how the name Yalta emerged. You should be aware that there are two Yaltas, the Greater Yalta and Yalta City. Yalta City is Yalta itself, but Greater Yalta is several small towns which are situated between the Bear Mountain and the Cat Mountain.
There are many activities in Yalta, especially in the summer months. There are many restaurants, cafes, bars and night clubs that will be able to feed and entertain you for a few good hours.
The main promenade is always full of people strolling back and forth past the works of the artists, singers and performers. There are many stalls selling souvenirs and all sorts of art works from clothing to beadworks to handmade jewelry. Yalta has a big hall, a theatre and cinema to entertain those who prefer staying indoors.
Yalta’s average prices are close to Western Standards and many shops, restaurants and hotels accept credit cards, however Yalta has an abundance of ATM machines. The people of Yalta are incredibly hospitable, very proud of their city and they are usually excited to share it with you.
It is believed that Chernihiv, the capital of the Chernihiv Oblast, first existed in the ninth century according to archaeological evidence excavated in the area, which included unearthed settlements and artifacts from the immensely powerful state, Khazar Khaganate. However, the first formal mention of Chernihiv came in the 907 Rus’-Byzantine Treaty. By the end of the 10th century, Chernihiv was believed to be under its own rulership from the findings made in the 19th century of one of the earliest royal mounds to be excavated in Eastern Europe, referred to as the ‘black grave’.
Chernihiv was greatly respected as the second in power and general wealth accumulated in the whole of the southern area of Kievan Rus. During the 11th century it became the seat of the great ‘Grand Principality of Chernigov’, considered the largest in Kievan Rus due to its influence and support by those in the Severian towns all the way to Murom, Tmutarakan and Ryazan, some of the remotest regions. Population numbers in the city soared, reaching 25 000 by 1239, but in that same year it was crushed under the power of Batu Khan. In turn a variety of powers dominated the region. Sadly Chernihiv was razed on two occasions in 1482 and 1497.
By 1623 Chernihiv was granted Magdeburg rights, allowing it to govern itself, and by 1635 it became the seat of the Czernihow Voivodship. Once again Chernihiv grew in power during the seventeenth century whilst the Khmelnytsky uprising was taking place. During 1667 the members of the ‘Treaty of Andrusovo’ became the main controllers of the area before surrendering it to Muscovite Russia. Chernigov still remained the self-governing centre of ‘Cossack Hetmanate' until it was abolished, reducing it to a common administrative center belonging to the Russian Empire. However, it did become the capital of the local administrative units.
It must be noted that through most of the trying periods of Chernihiv’s history, it still managed to keep its ecclesiastical importance, being the seat of the archbishopric. To this day, standing on the outskirts of the city are the ancient caves of the Eletsky monasteries, the original residence of the bishop. Its astounding 6 pillar cathedrals were constructed between the periods ranging from the 11th to the 12th century, with traces of some of the most historical murals still seen today.
Rivne, also called Rovno, has a population of over 250,000 people, it is a provincial city and is also the capital of the Rivne Region of Ukraine.
The city was founded in 1283 and was known as a town of the "Halytsia-Volyn" Principality. The town was named this because of its position on the plane surface. It became a Polish town, after the Liublin Union of 1569. It was united with Russia in 1793 as part of the Left-Bank Ukraine. Then the town was under Polish rule from 1920 until 1939. The town was then united with Ukraine as part of the Western Ukraine and as the capital of the Rovno Region.
Rivne is one of Ukraine’s biggest industrial, cultural and educational centers. Its leading industries include machine engineering, large-panel construction and furniture-making. This city is home to three Institutes, theatres, the Philharmonic Society and the Museum of the Regional Studies, which includes the museum-reserve “The Cossack Graves”. “The Cossack Graves” are situated on the island of Zhuravlykha (Crane) in the riverhead of the Styr River. This museum was built in 1966 in honour of the Cossacks who fell in action in the battle of Berestechko during the Liberation War of the Ukrainian people in 1648 to 1653. It includes the Temple-monument and the wooden church which was built in 1650.
The Rivne Region includes 15 districts, 10 towns, 18 settlements and over a 1000 villages. It also has some very interesting and historical architecture which includes the Assumption church with the bell tower located in the city of Rivne.